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Die Entwicklung der Phillips Kassette vom EL3300 (1963) bis zum Pioneer CT-S670D (1998)

Zusammengetragen im Tapehead forum von Richard (Richlooker)


Cassette deck genealogy

The first compact cassette recorder: Philips EL3300

  • Mono
  • Battery powered
  • Multi-function lever for tape transport control
  • DC motor / unregulated power supply (speed varies with battery voltage)
  • Combined recording/playback head: Permalloy core in bakelite housing
  • Erase head: Permalloy core in plastic housing
  • Built-in amp and speaker
  • Microphone input
  • Speaker output
  • Single uncalibrated tangential-reading moving-coil level meter


  • Philips EL3301
    • Regulated power supply for motor
    • Protection against accidental recording

The first cassette recorder aimed at stationary use: Philips EL3310

  • Mono
  • Mains power only
  • Horizontal / top-loading design
  • Piano keys for tape transport control
  • Pop-up lid and cassette eject
  • Tone control
  • Shaded-pole AC motor
  • Built-in amp and speaker
  • Single uncalibrated radial-reading moving-coil level meter
  • Wooden case; styling reflected its intended use in e.g. living room

The first stereo cassette recorder: Philips EL3312, styled similarly to and building upon EL3310

  • Stereo
  • No built-in speakers
  • Built-in amp + speaker outputs
  • Line level inputs and outputs


  • Sony TC-100: Sony's first cassette recorder; a portable with many innovations
    • Mains or battery powered - 4 C cells or rechargeable battery pack, charged within the unit
    • Automatic recording level
    • Line-level input
    • Piano keys for tape transport control
    • Pop-up lid and cassette eject
    • Tone control
  • Sony TC-124: The first stereo portable cassette recorder
    • The same form factor as TC-100, with a single built-in speaker
    • Included F99S stereo microphone
    • Also delivered as TC-124CS with two external speakers
  • Philips N2500: The first (very basic) cassette deck (no built-in amp or speakers)
    • Stereo
    • Playback only
    • Rotary knob for tape transport control
    • Only line-level output


  • The first recording stereo cassette decks
    • Harman Kardon CAD4
      • Manual recording level
      • Two calibrated moving-coil radial scale VU meters
    • Sony TC-125
      • Automatic recording level
      • No level meters
  • Philips N2502: The first cassette changer
    • Magazine holding six cassettes stacked


  • The first hi-fi cassette decks; mostly electronical innovations
    • Advent 200, Harman Kardon CAD5, Fisher RC-80
      • Calibrated moving-coil radial scale VU meters (Advent 200 had one, the other two)
      • Dolby B
    • Advent 200:
      • Type II / CrO2 tape capability
      • Recording sensitivity adjustment
  • Cassette changers
    • Philips N2401: Six-cassette endless loop "ski-slope" magazine
    • Denon TRC-798: Twelve-cassette sliding tray


  • Panasonic RS-275US
    • Ferrite head
    • Solenoid actuated mechanism
    • Button controls
    • Two motors:
      • Direct-drive capstan motor
      • Separate motor for fast forward/rewind
  • Auto-reverse: Panasonic RS-272US
    • Bidirectional tape transport / 4-channel head
  • Memory rewind: Panasonic RS-270US
  • Wurlitzer C110: Cassette Jukebox with 10 cassettes


  • Tandberg TCD-300: Several mechanical innovations
    • Vertical / upright design
    • Soft-touch controls
    • Closed-loop dual capstans
    • Three motors:
      • Hysteresis synchronous AC capstan motor
      • Two direct drive AC reel motors
    • Peak-reading equalized meters
      • Reflecting the treble boost - dependent on tape type - of the signal sent to the recording head
  • Hot-pressed ferrite head: Panasonic RS-276US
  • First walkman : Andreas Pavel's "Stereobelt"
  • Crystalline ferrite head: Akai GXC-40D
  • Cassette changer: Panasonic RS-296US
    • Twenty-cassette rotating carousel / "turntable"


  • Uher CG360: the breakthrough for modern front-loaded decks
    • Stackable/rack design
    • Slot-loading
    • Logic control
    • Dual calibrated, frequency compensated, tangential-reading moving coil peak meters
    • Automatic tape type sensing
    • Modular skeleton chassis
    • Integrated Dolby Circuit (NE545B)
    • Full tone control for HP out
    • Remote (cable)
    • Pluggable 2x10W power amp
  • LED peak indicator: Teac A-450
  • Top-loading design, controls on front / vertical panel: Teac A-450
  • Discrete recording and playback heads: Nakamichi 1000 Tri-Tracer
  • Nakamichi 1000 Tri-Tracer
    • Sensitivity calibration test tone (400Hz)
    • Manual sensitivity calibration
    • Manual recording head azimuth adjustment
  • Type III / FeCr tape capability: Sony TC-177SD, Sony TC-137SD
  • Dolby FM decoding / Dolby copy: Teac A-450
  • Switchable limiter: Elac CD 400, Nakamichi 1000 Tri-Tracer
  • Auto-reverse: Akai GXC-65D
    • Unidirectional / “cassette flipping”
    • ADR (automatic distortion reduction) "System which changes recording equalizer characteristics according to the signal level of a certain frequency band to achieve low distortion over an extended frequency range"
  • Noise reduction
    • ANRS (Dolby B equivalent): JVC CD-1669
    • DNL (playback-only noise gate): Philips N 2510


  • Internal, sloped cassette well behind door: Pioneer CT-F6161
  • First deck which meet the german DIN 45500 HiFi standard: Telefunken Magnetophon C3300
  • Uher patented the smallest DIn 45500 HiFi Stereo recorder: Uher CR210


  • FG Servo DC motor: Teac A-44o/A-460
  • Diagonal/sloped top-loading design: Nakamichi 600, Yamaha TC-800
  • Sandwiched recording and playback heads: Akai GXC-570D, Akai GXC-760D, Akai GXC-325D
  • Akai GXC-570D
    • Pitch control
    • Adjustable FFWD/REW speed
  • Peak meters with incandescent light bulbs: Bang&Olufsen Beocord 5000 (model 4705)


  • DBX Type II: Teac A-860
  • Two-box: RS-9900US
  • Open cassette bay, hinged head cover: Pioneer CT-F1000


  • Sendust head: Bang&Olufsen Beocord 5000 (model 4715)
  • LED peak meters: Dual C-939
  • LCD peak meters: Sony TC-K8
  • Super ANRS: JVC CD-1770
  • Dual cassette mechanisms: Clarion MD-8181A
  • Blank search: Optonica RT-1515
  • Differential FET playback amp: Yamaha TC-1000


  • Pressure pad lifter: Nakamichi 580
  • Motor-actuated head bridge: Nakamichi 580
  • Manual bias adjustment: Nakamichi 580
  • Programmable music search up to 9 titles: Uher CG350
  • DYNEQ: Tandberg TCD440
  • Actilinear Recording : Tandberg TCD 440
  • adres NR: Toshiba PC-X6AD
  • Bias and equalisation preset option through exchangeable plug-in card: Teac C-1 (card: CX-8)
  • Fluorescent level meters: Technics RS-641
  • Built in Spectrum analyzer: JVC KD-65, KD-85
  • Auto reverse: Akai GXC-735D ("Quick Reverse")
    • Laterally moving head
    • Infrared leader tape detection


  • Brushless slotless motor: Sony TC-K55/TC-K65/TC-K75
  • Motorized cassette drawer: Sony TC-K88
  • Electronic real-time tape counter: Luxman 5K50
  • Analog VU meters / multi-segment LED peak indicator: Sansui SC-5300
  • Microprocessor control: Eumig FL-1000µP
  • Eumig FL-1000µP:
    • Opto-electronic capstan servo (no flywheel, photo-etched disc w/ 2500 points)
    • Counter "go to" function
  • Bias calibration test tone: Nakamichi 581/582 (15kHz)
  • Automatic bias, level and eq calibration: JVC KD-A8, Nakamichi 1000ZXL
  • Nakamichi 1000ZXL:
    • Separate bias and erase oscillators
    • Automatic record azimuth calibration
    • 0.6µm playback head gap, 3.5µm record head gap (standard: 1.0µm/4.0µm)
    • Per-index tagging of playback eq, noise reduction and program index as 5Hz/20 bit code (R.A.M.M.)
  • Half-speed recording and playback: Nakamichi 680
  • Super D: Sanyo Plus D64
  • Neal 312
    • Dolby HX
    • Metal Typ IV capability


  • Double-speed recording and playback: Teac C-3X
  • Three motor DD + belt driven slave capstan in a single motor block: ASC 3000
  • Noise reduction
    • Dolby C: Sony TC-FX6C, Nad 6150C
    • High-Com: Telefunken CC-20, ASC 3000
  • Tandberg TCD-3004
    • Dedicated calibration meter
    • Powered cassette retention
  • Seperate cassette door cover for heads cleaning: Pioneer CT-A1
  • Twin stacked double deck: Sharp WQ T282 H


  • ReVox B-710: Four motors:
    • Two direct-drive capstans
    • Two direct-drive reels
  • HX Pro: Bang&Olufsen Beocord 8000
  • Analog mirror peak meters: Alpage AL-80


  • Amorphous head: Teac V-66C, Sony TC-FX66, Sony TC-FX77
  • Automatic powered playback azimuth calibration: Nakamichi Dragon
  • The first "quick reverse" (spinning) heads: Toshiba PC G6R
  • Transformer placed outside: Sony TC K777ES


  • Phillips MAAC, piezo powered azimuth correction: Marantz SD930


  • Phillips AZTEC azimuth correction: Phillips FC144
  • Automatic cassette door closing when the cassette was insert (optical sensor): Pioneer CT-A9


  • PlayTrim: Nad 6155


  • CAR Kompressor (works reverse, makes all louder <-40dB): NAD 6325
  • Permanent Azimuth Tape Error Correction: Grundig CF8200
  • Outside placed Twin Transformer: Sony TC K777ESII


  • Dolby HX-Pro + DynEQ combined: NAD6300



  • solenoid powered SAMTS (Super Anti Modulation Tape Stabilizer): Aiwa XK007


  • Dolby S: Harman Kardon TD4600 & TD4800
  • Digital in, built in 18bit D/A Converter: Aiwa XK7000
  • Blank Tape Optimized Recording (no erasing on recording): Aiwa XK9000
  • Resonance Damping Wood Base: Aiwa XK9000



  • DCC, downward compatible digital recording based on the cassette standard: Phillips DCC900


  • Pioneer CT-S740S
    • Super Auto BLE XD (Headroom Extension depending to tape)
    • FLEX (Frequency Level Expander)


  • Thin Film Head (MR): Technics RS-AZ7
  • Pioneer CT-W706DR
    • Digital NR
    • Digital Flex
    • Digital Super Auto BLE XD
    • 20Bit Legato Link Conversion (playback)
    • TDNS Copy


  • Pioneer CT-W806DR: full digital program mode for servicing (no trim pots inside)


  • Pioneer CT-S670D: complete digital working three header
    • ALCA (Auto Level Control with Tape Analysis)
    • Legato Link Conversion
    • Digital Processing System
    • Advanced 3-Head System
    • 20bit A/D - D/A Converter
    • Super Auto BLE XD
    • FLEX (Frequency Level Expander)